# Orders of magnitude (energy)

(Redirected from 1 E48 J)

This list compares various energies in joules (J), organized by order of magnitude.

## Below 1 J

List of orders of magnitude for energy
Factor (joules) SI prefix Value Item
10−34   6.626×10−34 J Photon energy of a photon with a frequency of 1 hertz.
10−33   2×10−33 J Average kinetic energy of translational motion of a molecule at the lowest temperature reached, 100 picokelvins as of 1999
10−28   6.6×10−28 J Energy of a typical AM radio photon (1 MHz) (4×10−9 eV)
10−24 Yocto- (yJ) 1.6×10−24 J Energy of a typical microwave oven photon (2.45 GHz) (1×10−5 eV)
10−23   2×10−23 J Average kinetic energy of translational motion of a molecule in the Boomerang Nebula, the coldest place known outside of a laboratory, at a temperature of 1 kelvin
10−22   2–3000×10−22 J Energy of infrared light photons
10−21 Zepto- (zJ) 1.7×10−21 J 1 kJ/mol, converted to energy per molecule
2.1×10−21 J Thermal energy in each degree of freedom of a molecule at 25 °C (kT/2) (0.01 eV)
2.856×10−21 J By Landauer's principle, the minimum amount of energy required at 25 °C to change one bit of information
3–7×10−21 J Energy of a van der Waals interaction between atoms (0.02–0.04 eV)
4.1×10−21 J The "kT" constant at 25 °C, a common rough approximation for the total thermal energy of each molecule in a system (0.03 eV)
7–22×10−21 J Energy of a hydrogen bond (0.04 to 0.13 eV)
10−20   4.5×10−20 J Upper bound of the mass-energy of a neutrino in particle physics (0.28 eV)
10−19   1.6×10−19 J ≈1 electronvolt (eV)
3–5×10−19 J Energy range of photons in visible light (≈1.6–3.1 eV)
3–14×10−19 J Energy of a covalent bond (2–9 eV)
5–200×10−19 J Energy of ultraviolet light photons
10−18 Atto- (aJ) 2.18×10−18 J Ground state ionization energy of hydrogen (13.6 eV)
10−17   2–2000×10−17 J Energy range of X-ray photons
10−16
10−15 Femto- (fJ) 3 × 10−15 J Average kinetic energy of one human red blood cell.
10−14   1×10−14 J Sound energy (vibration) transmitted to the eardrums by listening to a whisper for one second.
> 2×10−14 J Energy of gamma ray photons
2.7×10−14 J Upper bound of the mass-energy of a muon neutrino
8.2×10−14 J Rest mass-energy of an electron
10−13   1.6×10−13 J 1 megaelectronvolt (MeV)
10−12 Pico- (pJ) 2.3×10−12 J Kinetic energy of neutrons produced by D-T fusion, used to trigger fission (14.1 MeV)
10−11   3.4×10−11 J Average total energy released in the nuclear fission of one uranium-235 atom (215 MeV)
10−10   1.5030×10−10 J Rest mass-energy of a proton
1.505×10−10 J Rest mass-energy of a neutron
1.6×10−10 J 1 gigaelectronvolt (GeV)
3×10−10 J Rest mass-energy of a deuteron
6×10−10 J Rest mass-energy of an alpha particle
7×10−10 J Energy required to raise a grain of sand by 0.1mm (the thickness of a piece of paper).
10−9 Nano- (nJ) 1.6×10−9 J 10 GeV
8×10−9 J Initial operating energy per beam of the CERN Large Electron Positron Collider in 1989 (50 GeV)
10−8   1.3×10−8 J Mass-energy of a W boson (80.4 GeV)
1.5×10−8 J Mass-energy of a Z boson (91.2 GeV)
1.6×10−8 J 100 GeV
2×10−8 J Mass-energy of the Higgs Boson (125.1 GeV)
6.4×10−8 J Operating energy per proton of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator in 1976
10−7   1×10−7 J ≡ 1 erg
1.6×10−7 J 1 TeV (teraelectronvolt), about the kinetic energy of a flying mosquito
10−6 Micro- (µJ) 1.04×10−6 J Energy per proton in the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2015 (6.5 TeV)
10−5
10−4
10−3 Milli- (mJ)
10−2 Centi- (cJ)
10−1 Deci- (dJ) 1.1×10−1 J Energy of an American half-dollar falling 1 metre

## 1 to 105 J

 100 J 1 J ≡ 1 N·m (newton–metre) 1 J ≡ 1 W·s (watt-second) 1 J Kinetic energy produced as an extra small apple (~100 grams) falls 1 meter against Earth's gravity 1 J Energy required to heat 1 gram of dry, cool air by 1 degree Celsius 1.4 J ≈ 1 ft·lbf (foot-pound force) 4.184 J ≡ 1 thermochemical calorie (small calorie) 4.1868 J ≡ 1 International (Steam) Table calorie 8 J Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin theoretical upper limit for the energy of a cosmic ray coming from a distant source 101 Deca- (daJ) 1×101 J Flash energy of a typical pocket camera electronic flash capacitor (100–400 µF @ 330 V) 5×101 J The most energetic cosmic ray ever detected was most likely a single proton traveling only slightly slower than the speed of light. 102 Hecto- (hJ) 3×102 J Energy of a lethal dose of X-rays 3×102 J Kinetic energy of an average person jumping as high as they can 3.3×102 J Energy to melt 1 g of ice > 3.6×102 J Kinetic energy of 800 gram standard men's javelin thrown at > 30 m/s by elite javelin throwers 5–20×102 J Energy output of a typical photography studio strobe light in a single flash 6×102 J Kinetic energy of 2 kg standard men's discus thrown at 24.4 m/s[citation needed] by the world record holder Jürgen Schult 6×102 J Use of a 10-watt flashlight for 1 minute 7.5×102 J A power of 1 horsepower applied for 1 second 7.8×102 J Kinetic energy of 7.26 kg standard men's shot thrown at 14.7 m/s[citation needed] by the world record holder Randy Barnes 8.01×102 J Amount of work needed to lift a man with an average weight (81.7 kg) one meter above Earth (or any planet with Earth gravity) 103 Kilo- (kJ) 1.1×103 J ≈ 1 British thermal unit (BTU), depending on the temperature 1.4×103 J Total solar radiation received from the Sun by 1 square meter at the altitude of Earth's orbit per second (solar constant) 1.8×103 J Kinetic energy of M16 rifle bullet (5.56×45mm NATO M855, 4.1 g fired at 930 m/s) 2.3×103 J Energy to vaporize 1 g of water into steam 3×103 J Lorentz force can crusher pinch 3.4×103 J Kinetic energy of world-record men's hammer throw (7.26 kg thrown at 30.7 m/s in 1986) 3.6×103 J ≡ 1 W·h (watt-hour) 4.2×103 J Energy released by explosion of 1 gram of TNT 4.2×103 J ≈ 1 food Calorie (large calorie) ~7×103 J Muzzle energy of an elephant gun, e.g. firing a .458 Winchester Magnum 9×103 J Energy in an alkaline AA battery 104 1.7×104 J Energy released by the metabolism of 1 gram of carbohydrates or protein 3.8×104 J Energy released by the metabolism of 1 gram of fat 4–5×104 J Energy released by the combustion of 1 gram of gasoline 5×104 J Kinetic energy of 1 gram of matter moving at 10 km/s 105 3×105 – 15×105 J Kinetic energy of an automobile at highway speeds (1 to 5 tons at 89 km/h or 55 mph) 5×105 J Kinetic energy of 1 gram of a meteor hitting Earth

## 106 to 1011 J

 106 Mega- (MJ) 1×106 J Kinetic energy of a 2 tonne vehicle at 32 metres per second (115 km/h or 72 mph) 1.2×106 J Approximate food energy of a snack such as a Snickers bar (280 food calories) 3.6×106 J = 1 kWh (kilowatt-hour) (used for electricity) 4.2×106 J Energy released by explosion of 1 kilogram of TNT 8.4×106 J Recommended food energy intake per day for a moderately active woman (2000 food calories) 107 1×107 J Kinetic energy of the armor-piercing round fired by the assault guns of the ISU-152 tank[citation needed] 1.1×107 J Recommended food energy intake per day for a moderately active man (2600 food calories) 3.7×107 J $1 of electricity at a cost of$0.10/kWh (the US average retail cost in 2009) 4×107 J Energy from the combustion of 1 cubic meter of natural gas 4.2×107 J Caloric energy consumed by Olympian Michael Phelps on a daily basis during Olympic training 6.3×107 J Theoretical minimum energy required to accelerate 1 kg of matter to escape velocity from Earth's surface (ignoring atmosphere) 108 1×108 J Kinetic energy of a 55 tonne aircraft at typical landing speed (59 m/s or 115 knots)[citation needed] 1.1×108 J ≈ 1 therm, depending on the temperature 1.1×108 J ≈ 1 Tour de France, or ~90 hours ridden at 5 W/kg by a 65 kg rider 7.3×108 J ≈ Energy from burning 16 kilograms of oil (using 135 kg per barrel of light crude)[citation needed] 109 Giga- (GJ) 1–10×109 J Energy in an average lightning bolt (thunder) 1.1×109 J Magnetic stored energy in the world's largest toroidal superconducting magnet for the ATLAS experiment at CERN, Geneva 1.2×109 J Inflight 100-ton Boeing 757-200 at 300 knots (154 m/s) 1.4×109 J Theoretical minimum amount of energy required to melt a tonne of steel (380 kWh) 2×109 J Energy of an ordinary 61 liter gasoline tank of a car. 2×109 J The unit of energy in Planck units 3×109 J Inflight 125-ton Boeing 767-200 flying at 373 knots (192 m/s) 3.3×109 J Approximate average amount of energy expended by a human heart muscle over an 80-year lifetime 4.2×109 J Energy released by explosion of 1 ton of TNT. 4.5×109 J Average annual energy usage of a standard refrigerator 6.1×109 J ≈ 1 bboe (barrel of oil equivalent) 1010 1.9×1010 J Kinetic energy of an Airbus A380 at cruising speed (560 tonnes at 511 knots or 263 m/s) 4.2×1010 J ≈ 1 toe (ton of oil equivalent) 4.6×1010 J Yield energy of a Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb, the second most powerful non-nuclear weapon ever designed 7.3×1010 J Energy consumed by the average U.S. automobile in the year 2000 8.6×1010 J ≈ 1 MW·d (megawatt-day), used in the context of power plants 8.8×1010 J Total energy released in the nuclear fission of one gram of uranium-235 1011 2.4×1011 J Approximate food energy consumed by an average human in an 80-year lifetime.

## 1012 to 1017 J

 1012 Tera- (TJ) 3.4×1012 J Maximum fuel energy of an Airbus A330-300 (97,530 liters of Jet A-1) 3.6×1012 J 1 GW·h (gigawatt-hour) 4×1012 J Electricity generated by one 20-kg CANDU fuel bundle assuming ~29% thermal efficiency of reactor 4.2×1012 J Energy released by explosion of 1 kiloton of TNT 6.4×1012 J Energy contained in jet fuel in a Boeing 747-100B aircraft at max fuel capacity (183,380 liters of Jet A-1) 1013 1.1×1013 J Energy of the maximum fuel an Airbus A380 can carry (320,000 liters of Jet A-1) 1.2×1013 J Orbital kinetic energy of the International Space Station (417 tonnes at 7.7 km/s) 6.3×1013 J Yield of the Little Boy atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in World War II (15 kilotons) 9×1013 J Theoretical total mass-energy of 1 gram of matter 1014 1.8×1014 J Energy released by annihilation of 1 gram of antimatter and matter 3.75×1014 J Total energy released by the Chelyabinsk meteor. 6×1014 J Energy released by an average hurricane in 1 second 1015 Peta- (PJ) > 1015 J Energy released by a severe thunderstorm 1×1015 J Yearly electricity consumption in Greenland as of 2008 4.2×1015 J Energy released by explosion of 1 megaton of TNT 1016 1×1016 J Estimated impact energy released in forming Meteor Crater[citation needed] 1.1×1016 J Yearly electricity consumption in Mongolia as of 2010 9×1016 J Mass-energy in 1 kilogram of antimatter (or matter) 1017 1×1017 J Energy released on the Earth's surface by the magnitude 9.1–9.3 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake 1.7×1017 J Total energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each second 2.1×1017 J Yield of the Tsar Bomba, the largest nuclear weapon ever tested (50 megatons) 4.2×1017 J Yearly electricity consumption of Norway as of 2008 4.5×1017 J Approximate energy needed to accelerate one ton to one-tenth of the speed of light 8×1017 J Estimated energy released by the eruption of the Indonesian volcano, Krakatoa, in 1883

## 1018 to 1023 J

 1018 Exa- (EJ) 1.4×1018 J Yearly electricity consumption of South Korea as of 2009 1019 1.4×1019 J Yearly electricity consumption in the U.S. as of 2009 1.4×1019J Yearly electricity production in the U.S. as of 2009 5×1019 J Energy released in 1 day by an average hurricane in producing rain (400 times greater than the wind energy) 6.4×1019 J Yearly electricity consumption of the world as of 2008 6.8×1019 J Yearly electricity generation of the world as of 2008 1020 5×1020 J Total world annual energy consumption in 2010 8×1020 J Estimated global uranium resources for generating electricity 2005 1021 Zetta- (ZJ) 6.9×1021 J Estimated energy contained in the world's natural gas reserves as of 2010 7.9×1021 J Estimated energy contained in the world's petroleum reserves as of 2010 1022 1.5×1022J Total energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each day 2.4×1022 J Estimated energy contained in the world's coal reserves as of 2010 2.9×1022 J Identified global uranium-238 resources using fast reactor technology 3.9×1022 J Estimated energy contained in the world's fossil fuel reserves as of 2010 4×1022 J Estimated total energy released by the magnitude 9.1–9.3 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake 1023 2.2×1023 J Total global uranium-238 resources using fast reactor technology 5×1023 J Approximate energy released in the formation of the Chicxulub Crater in the Yucatán Peninsula

## Over 1023 J

 1024 Yotta- (YJ) 5.5×1024 J Total energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each year 1025 6×1025 J Upper limit of energy released by a solar flare 1026 3.8×1026 J Total energy output of the Sun each second 1027 1×1027 J Estimate of the energy released by the impact that created the Caloris basin on Mercury 1028 3.8×1028 J Kinetic energy of the Moon in its orbit around the Earth (counting only its velocity relative to the Earth) 1029 2.1×1029 J Rotational energy of the Earth 1030 1.8×1030 J Gravitational binding energy of Mercury 1031 3.3×1031 J Total energy output of the Sun each day 1032 2×1032 J Gravitational binding energy of the Earth 1033 2.7×1033 J Earth's kinetic energy in its orbit 1034 1.2×1034 J Total energy output of the Sun each year 1039 6.6×1039 J Theoretical total mass-energy of the Moon 1041 2.276×1041 J Gravitational binding energy of the Sun 5.4×1041 J Theoretical total mass-energy of the Earth 1043 5×1043 J Total energy of all gamma rays in a typical gamma-ray burst 1044 1–2×1044 J Estimated energy released in a supernova, sometimes referred to as a foe 1.2×1044 J Approximate lifetime energy output of the Sun. 1045 (1.1±0.2)×1045 J Brightest observed hypernova ASASSN-15lh few times×1045 J Beaming-corrected 'True' total energy (Energy in gamma rays+relativistic kinetic energy) of hyper-energetic gamma-ray burst 1046 1×1046 J Estimated energy released in a hypernova 1047 1.8×1047 J Theoretical total mass-energy of the Sun 5.4×1047 J Mass-energy emitted as gravitational waves during the merger of two black holes, originally about 30 Solar masses each, as observed by LIGO (GW150914) 8.6×1047 J Mass-energy emitted as gravitational waves during the largest black hole merger yet observed (GW170729), originally about 42 solar masses each. 8.8×1047 J GRB 080916C – the most powerful Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) ever recorded – total 'apparent'/isotropic (not corrected for beaming) energy output estimated at 8.8 × 1047 joules (8.8 × 1054 erg), or 4.9 times the sun's mass turned to energy. 1053 6×1053 J Total mechanical energy or enthalpy in the powerful AGN outburst in the RBS 797 1054 3×1054 J Total mechanical energy or enthalpy in the powerful AGN outburst in the Hercules A (3C 348) 1055 1055 J Total mechanical energy or enthalpy in the powerful AGN outburst in the MS 0735.6+7421 1058 4×1058 J Visible mass-energy in our galaxy, the Milky Way 1059 1×1059 J Total mass-energy of our galaxy, the Milky Way, including dark matter and dark energy 1062 1–2×1062 J Total mass-energy of the Virgo Supercluster including dark matter, the Supercluster which contains the Milky Way 1069 4×1069 J Estimated total mass-energy of the observable universe

## SI multiples

Submultiples Multiples Value SI symbol Name Value 10−1 J dJ decijoule 101 J daJ decajoule 10−2 J cJ centijoule 102 J hJ hectojoule 10−3 J mJ millijoule 103 J kJ kilojoule 10−6 J µJ microjoule 106 J MJ megajoule 10−9 J nJ nanojoule 109 J GJ gigajoule 10−12 J pJ picojoule 1012 J TJ terajoule 10−15 J fJ femtojoule 1015 J PJ petajoule 10−18 J aJ attojoule 1018 J EJ exajoule 10−21 J zJ zeptojoule 1021 J ZJ zettajoule 10−24 J yJ yoctojoule 1024 J YJ yottajoule

The joule is named after James Prescott Joule. As with every SI unit named for a person, its symbol starts with an upper case letter (J), but when written in full it follows the rules for capitalisation of a common noun; i.e., "joule" becomes capitalised at the beginning of a sentence and in titles, but is otherwise in lower case.