Timeline of knowledge about galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and large-scale structure

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Timeline of galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and large-scale structure of the universe

Pre-20th century[edit]

Early 20th century[edit]

Mid-20th century[edit]

Late 20th century[edit]

Early 21st century[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Josep Puig Montada (September 28, 2007). "Ibn Bajja". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-07-11.
  2. ^ Kepple, George Robert; Glen W. Sanner (1998). The Night Sky Observer's Guide. 1. Willmann-Bell, Inc. p. 18. ISBN 0-943396-58-1.
  3. ^ "Observatoire de Paris (Abd-al-Rahman Al Sufi)". Retrieved 2007-04-19.
  4. ^ "Observatoire de Paris (LMC)". Retrieved 2007-04-19.
  5. ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews
  6. ^ Mohamed, Mohaini (2000). Great Muslim Mathematicians. Penerbit UTM. pp. 49–50. ISBN 983-52-0157-9.
  7. ^ Hamid-Eddine Bouali; Mourad Zghal; Zohra Ben Lakhdar (2005). "Popularisation of Optical Phenomena: Establishing the First Ibn Al-Haytham Workshop on Photography" (PDF). The Education and Training in Optics and Photonics Conference. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
  8. ^ Livingston, John W. (1971). "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 91 (1): 96–103 [99]. doi:10.2307/600445. JSTOR 600445.
  9. ^ Britt, Robert Roy. "Milky Way’s Central Structure Seen with Fresh Clarity."
  10. ^ SPACE.com 16 August 2005.
  11. ^ Devitt, Terry "Galactic survey reveals a new look for the Milky Way." Archived 2006-02-09 at the Wayback Machine 16 August 2005
  12. ^ "Dark matter galaxy hints seen 10bn light-years away". BBC News. 2012-01-18.
  13. ^ Wall, Mike (2013-01-11). "Largest structure in universe discovered". Fox News.
  14. ^ Morelle, Rebecca (2013-10-23). "'Most distant galaxy' discovered". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-07-28.
  15. ^ Horvath I.; Hakkila J. & Bagoly Z. (2014). "Possible structure in the GRB sky distribution at redshift two". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 561: L12. arXiv:1401.0533. Bibcode:2014A&A...561L..12H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201323020. S2CID 24224684.
  16. ^ Horvath I.; Hakkila J. & Bagoly Z. (2013). "The largest structure of the Universe, defined by Gamma-Ray Bursts". arXiv:1311.1104. Bibcode:2013arXiv1311.1104H. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  17. ^ Klotz, Irene (2013-11-19). "Universe's Largest Structure is a Cosmic Conundrum". discovery. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
  18. ^ Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Hélène; Hoffman, Yehuda; Pomarède, Daniel (Sep 2014). "The Laniakea supercluster of galaxies". Nature. 513 (7516): 71–73. arXiv:1409.0880. Bibcode:2014Natur.513...71T. doi:10.1038/nature13674. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 25186900. S2CID 205240232.
  19. ^ Tempel, Elmo (2014-09-01). "Cosmology: Meet the Laniakea supercluster". Nature. 513 (7516): 41–42. Bibcode:2014Natur.513...41T. doi:10.1038/513041a. PMID 25186896. S2CID 4459417.
  20. ^ "Newly identified galactic supercluster is home to the Milky Way". National Radio Astronomy Observatory. ScienceDaily. 3 September 2014.
  21. ^ Irene Klotz (2014-09-03). "New map shows Milky Way lives in Laniakea galaxy complex". Reuters. Reuters.
  22. ^ Elizabeth Gibney (3 September 2014). "Earth's new address: 'Solar System, Milky Way, Laniakea'". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.15819.
  23. ^ Quenqua, Douglas (3 September 2014). "Astronomers Give Name to Network of Galaxies". New York Times. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  24. ^ Carlisle, Camille M. (3 September 2014). "Laniakea: Our Home Supercluster". Sky and Telescope. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
  25. ^ Overbye, Dennis (6 March 2020). "This Black Hole Blew a Hole in the Cosmos - The galaxy cluster Ophiuchus was doing just fine until WISEA J171227.81-232210.7 — a black hole several billion times as massive as our sun — burped on it". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  26. ^ "Biggest cosmic explosion ever detected left huge dent in space". The Guardian. 27 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  27. ^ Giacintucci, S.; Markevitch, M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Wik, D. R.; Wang, Q. H. S.; Clarke, T. E. (27 February 2020). "Discovery of a Giant Radio Fossil in the Ophiuchus Galaxy Cluster". The Astrophysical Journal. 891 (1): 1. arXiv:2002.01291. Bibcode:2020ApJ...891....1G. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab6a9d. ISSN 1538-4357. S2CID 211020555.
  28. ^ Overbye, Dennis (20 May 2020). "The Galaxy That Grew Up Too Fast". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  29. ^ "ALMA discovers massive rotating disk in early universe". phys.org. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  30. ^ Strickland, Ashley. "Astronomers find the Wolfe Disk, an unlikely galaxy, in the distant universe". CNN. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  31. ^ Neeleman, Marcel; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Kanekar, Nissim; Rafelski, Marc (May 2020). "A cold, massive, rotating disk galaxy 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang". Nature. 581 (7808): 269–272. arXiv:2005.09661. Bibcode:2020Natur.581..269N. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2276-y. PMID 32433621. S2CID 218718343.
  32. ^ Pomarède, Daniel; et al. (10 July 2020). "Cosmicflows-3: The South Pole Wall". The Astrophysical Journal. 897 (2): 133. arXiv:2007.04414. Bibcode:2020ApJ...897..133P. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab9952. S2CID 220425419. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  33. ^ Pomerede, D.; et al. (January 2020). "The South Pole Wall". Harvard University. 235. p. 453.01. Bibcode:2020AAS...23545301P. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  34. ^ Staff (10 July 2020). "Astronomers map massive structure beyond Laniakea Supercluster". University of Hawaii. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  35. ^ Overbye, Dennis (10 July 2020). "Beyond the Milky Way, a Galactic Wall - Astronomers have discovered a vast assemblage of galaxies hidden behind our own, in the "zone of avoidance."". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  36. ^ Mann, Adam (10 July 2020). "Astronomers discover South Pole Wall, a gigantic structure stretching 1.4 billion light-years across". Live Science. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  37. ^ Starr, Michelle (14 July 2020). "A Giant 'Wall' of Galaxies Has Been Found Stretching Across The Universe". ScienceAlert.com. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  38. ^ "Largest-ever 3D map of the universe released by scientists". Sky News. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  39. ^ "No need to Mind the Gap: Astrophysicists fill in 11 billion years of our universe's expansion history". SDSS. Retrieved 18 August 2020.