Year of three popes

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A year of three popes is a common reference to a year when the College of Cardinals of the Catholic Church are required to elect two new popes within the same calendar year.[1] Such a year generally occurs when a newly elected pope dies or resigns very early into his papacy. This results in the Catholic Church's being led by three different popes during the same calendar year. In one instance, in 1276, there was a year of four popes.

Instances[edit]

The most recent instance of a year of three popes occurred in 1978. The three popes involved were:[2]

  1. Paul VI, who was elected on 21 June 1963 and died on 6 August 1978.
  2. John Paul I, who was elected on 26 August 1978 and died thirty-three days later on 28 September 1978.
  3. John Paul II, who was elected on 16 October 1978 and held the position until his death 26 years, 5 months, and 18 days later on 2 April 2005.

There have been several instances in which three or more popes have held office in a given calendar year. Years in which the Roman Catholic Church was led by three different popes include:

There was also a year in which the Roman Catholic Church was led by four popes, called the Year of Four Popes:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sylvester III and Gregory VI are sometimes considered antipopes.

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "1978:– The Year of Three Popes". Kildare and Leighlin Diocese. 30 August 2008. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  2. ^ "1978: The Year Of The Three Popes". Tu Es Petrus. EWTN. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  3. ^ "Pope Eugene II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 9 August 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  4. ^ "Pope Valentine". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 9 August 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  5. ^ "Pope Gregory IV". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 30 October 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  6. ^ "Pope Formosus". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 3 November 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  7. ^ "Pope Boniface VI". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  8. ^ a b "Pope Stephen (VI) VII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 3 November 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  9. ^ "Pope Romanus". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 7 August 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  10. ^ "Pope Theodore II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 9 August 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  11. ^ "Pope John X". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  12. ^ "Pope Leo VI". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  13. ^ "Pope Stephen VII (VIII)". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 3 November 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010. Note: Actual date of Pope Stephen VII's accession is either late 928 or early 929.
  14. ^ "Pope Leo VIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  15. ^ "Pope Benedict V". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 7 August 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  16. ^ "Pope John XIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 9 August 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  17. ^ "Pope Silvester II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2 November 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  18. ^ "Pope John XVII (XVIII)". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  19. ^ "Pope John XVIII (XIX)". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 21 October 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  20. ^ "List of Popes". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  21. ^ "Pope Benedict IX". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 1 August 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  22. ^ "Pope Gregory VI". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 9 August 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  23. ^ "Pope Urban III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  24. ^ "Pope Gregory VIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  25. ^ "Pope Clement III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 17 May 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  26. ^ "Pope Alexander VI". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 19 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  27. ^ "Pope Pius III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 7 August 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  28. ^ "Pope Julius II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 27 October 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  29. ^ "Pope Julius III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 5 October 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  30. ^ "Pope Marcellus II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 4 October 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  31. ^ "Pope Paul IV". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  32. ^ "Pope Sixtus V". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  33. ^ "Pope Urban VII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 9 August 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  34. ^ "Pope Gregory XIV". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 9 October 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  35. ^ "Pope Clement VIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 5 November 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  36. ^ "Pope Leo XI". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  37. ^ "Pope Paul V". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 18 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  38. ^ "Pope Gregory X". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2 July 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  39. ^ "Pope Innocent V". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2 August 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  40. ^ "Pope Adrian V". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 7 August 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  41. ^ "Pope John XXI (XX)". Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 24 December 2017. Retrieved 28 September 2010.

Bibliography[edit]