Kordofanian languages

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Kordofanian
(geographic)
Geographic
distribution
Kurdufan
Linguistic classificationNiger–Congo
  • Kordofanian
Subdivisions
ISO 639-5kdo
GlottologNone
Kordofan-languages 02.png

The Kordofanian languages are a geographic grouping of five language groups spoken in the Nuba Mountains of the Kurdufan, Sudan: Talodi–Heiban languages, Lafofa languages, Rashad languages, Katla languages and Kadu languages. The first four groups are branches of the Niger–Congo family, whereas Kadu is now widely seen as a branch of the Nilo-Saharan family.

History[edit]

In 1963, Joseph Greenberg added them to the Niger–Congo family, creating his Niger–Kordofanian proposal. The Kordofanian languages have not been shown to be more distantly related than other branches of Niger–Congo, however, and they have not been shown to constitute a valid group. Today, the Kadu languages are excluded, and the others are usually included in Niger–Congo proper.

Roger Blench notes that the Talodi and Heiban families have the noun class systems characteristic of the Atlantic–Congo core of Niger–Congo but that the two Katla languages have no trace of ever having had such a system. However, the Kadu languages and some of the Rashad languages appear to have acquired noun classes as part of a Sprachbund rather than having inherited them. Blench concludes that Talodi and Heiban are core Niger–Congo whereas Katla and Rashad form a peripheral branch along the lines of Mande.

Heiban, Katloid, and Talodi are also grouped together in an automated computational analysis (ASJP 4) by Müller et al. (2013).[1] However, since the analysis was automatically generated, the grouping could be either due to mutual lexical borrowing or genetic inheritance.

Map of the language families, subfamilies, and languages spoken in the Nuba Mountains

Talodi–Heiban languages[edit]

The Heiban languages, also called Koalib or Koalib–Moro, and the Talodi languages, also called Talodi–Masakin, are part of the Talodi–Heiban group.[2]

Lafofa languages[edit]

Lafofa (Tegem) was for a time classified with Talodi, but appears to be a separate branch of Niger–Congo.

Rashad languages[edit]

The number of Rashad languages, also called Tegali–Tagoi, varies among descriptions, from two (Williamson & Blench 2000), three (Ethnologue), to eight (Blench ms). Tagoi has a noun-class system like the Atlantic–Congo languages, which is apparently borrowed, but Tegali does not.

Katla languages[edit]

The two Katla languages have no trace of ever having had a Niger–Congo-type noun-class system.

Kadu languages[edit]

Since the work of Thilo Schadeberg in 1981, the "Tumtum" or Kadu branch is now widely seen as Nilo-Saharan. However, the evidence is slight, and a conservative classification would treat it as an independent family.

Reconstruction[edit]

Quint (2020) suggests that Proto-Kordofanian can be reconstructed from the Heibanian, Talodian, Rashadian, Katloid, and Lafofa languages. His Proto-Kordofanian reconstructions are as follows:[3]

Gloss Proto-Kordofanian Talodian Heibanian Lafofa Katloid (Tima) Rashadian
bark 1 (n.) *-mVk- *t-ə-mək Koalib kìmùukùl [kìmùugùl] Orig kìmbàkɔ́l
bark 2 (n.) *k(V)VrE ~ *c(V)VrE c-iíri kúúr *g-ware
beat / hit *-bV- *-gob- / *kə-bɔ *-bid̪- ...biŋ Orig bí(r) / pù(ró)
belly *-VrVk ~ *-VɽVk *j-+-arag / *ca-rək *g-+-aare t̪-úur-i kúɽúún
bite / eat *-CVk *-gVjog / *kə-ɟɔ *-iy- ...jiɛ *yɛk
blood *(C)iCPV *ŋ-+-ittsug / *ŋ-ɪccʊk Katla ija ~ iya Rashad wiya
breast *CVmiC *j-+-intsig / *c-ə-mmik Tima kɨ̀míndì *d-miɲ
clothes *kErEC *k-ɛrɛt̪ *g-+-ered̪ Tagoi kɛr(ɛ́)w
dry *-OndV *-an d̪o *-unDo *-uddi
ear *kVnV *g-+-eenu / *k-ɛnu *g- / n-+-aani kɔ́.nɔ̀ Tagoi finin, Tegali (a)nuu
elephant *-VŋV(C) *d-+-oŋor yuːŋi *(fV)ŋVn
eye *?+-git *j-+-igg / *c-it Katla gɨgöt *y-ngid
foot / leg *-AkA(C) *ts-+-agag Koalib káakà [káagà] l-ia-ga *d-ɛgɛn
goat *Em(b)iT *w-+-emig / *u-mit ɛɛmi Tima címìd̪ *mbɨt
green / wet *-iklV ~ *ijlV *-iigla b-ʊ́ɒji-lli Tagoi -ijilú, Tegali -rígɛ̂l
hair *kaam ~ *gaam *d-+-ʊgaŋ / *NC-ŋən̪ Tima káàm *g-aam
head *gaCDP ~ *CPaCDP *j-+-ats, *c-ac Katla gas *g-aj
left (side) *-CVul- ~ *-CVur- *-gule / *-gulɛ *-awur kúlɪ *-awwir
mud *-ElO Koalib kèlòo Tima k-ʌ́ʌ́lu Orig ŋí̧lɔ́
near *-Et̪t̪OC *-iddu / *-t̪t̪o-t Koalib kɛ́ttɔ̀k [kɛ́t̪t̪ɔ̀k] Tima mɛ̀t̪ɛ́n Tagoi gattɔŋ / tɔgɔt
one *attV ~ *addV *-aDDe Tima àtíín Orig wàttá
rain *kaw ~ *kal *k-abɪk *g-+-aw k-állɔ́-y *(y)au
red *-OrdE *-oode[4] / *-d̪ɛ *-UUre Tima -rdí *-araw
sheep *kACVAC *t̪ʊ-ŋgat̪ Koalib káaŋàl βaːŋi (k)áŋàl Orig kàgóy
smoke (n.) *-uCLVBbV *g-+-ulu c-oor-í kʊ̀ʊ̀ɽʊ́n Tagoi k(ə)rək, Tegali tulɛ́
sun *-VCNV *j-+-iŋgi, *c-ə-ŋgi Ø-+*-aŋin kínèè *-aane
tongue *-d̪Vŋl(V) ~ *-d̪VlVŋ(V) *d̪-+-(V)lVŋe / *tʊ-ləŋɛ d̪-+*-ŋela l-íáŋ-i kìlíŋíì *d-aŋil(-ag)
vomit *-UdA ~ *-UwA -VddV / *uk-dɛ *-wey- lwâ-d̪aŋ... lwa -húwʌ̀ *VdVk

Comparative vocabulary[edit]

Sample basic vocabulary of the Heiban, Talodi, Rashad, and Lafofa branches:

Note: In table cells with slashes, the singular form is given before the slash, while the plural form follows the slash.

Language eye ear nose tooth tongue mouth blood bone tree water eat name
Proto-Heiban[5] *ay / g-,j- *-aani *-ad̪alo / g-,j-; g-,n- *-ŋad̪ / li-,j- *-ŋela; *-iŋla ? / D-,d- *-uuɲu *-win / ŋ- *-uya / li-,ŋu- (WC); *-uɲ / ʔ-,j- (E) *-aaɽe / gu-,j- (WC) *-aw / ŋ- *-id̪d̪- *-iriɲ / j-
Proto-Talodi[6] *c-it / k- *k-ɛnu / 0- *k-ə-ɲɟɛ / 0-,n- *c-ə-ɲit / k- *tʊ̪ -ləŋɛ / ḷə- *t-̪ ɔn̪ / ḷ- *ŋ-ɪccʊk *c-ə-mma-ɲan̪ / m- *p-ɪda / k- *ŋ-ɪḷ,-ɪḷɪ *ḷə-ɡɔ *k-ə-ḷəŋan / 0- (or *...n̪)
Proto-Katloid[7] *g-ɪgɛd̪ *-ɔnɔ *gɪ-lɛd̪ *-laŋɛd̪ *i-ju(u) *-ʌ-lV-
Tagoi[8] yígət / ŋə́gət fənín / fənédit yídir / ŋə́dər tíɲən / ŋə́ɲən táŋə́lak / yáŋə́lágɒt kajər / hájɛrət ŋɔ́y kuh / huh kafɔ́ / hafɔ́ ŋay yɛk pəŋən / fəŋən
Turjok[8] íŋgət / ŋ̀gət fəniín / fəníínət indər / ŋəndər M. tiɲin / ŋiɲin taŋəlk / yaŋəlak ~ yaŋəlɒgɔt kiɲjɛr / siɲjɛr(g)ɔt ŋɔ́y kus / sus kafɔ / safɔ́ ŋaay pɛŋɛn / sɛŋɛn
Tagom[8] ŋgə́t̚ / ŋgə́de nu ~ nũũ / núun ~ anuun ndr̀ / ndr̀re ɲîn / ɲîne aŋa / aŋún ̩ɲjár / (a)ɲjáre óyá / óyo̍n uru / urûn lás / lásɛ ega yɛk ɛŋɛn / ɛŋɛnɛ́ɛn
Tegem[9] ṭ-ì, ʤ-ì / m- kә́-ràŋ(ì) / a- ṭ-ɛ̀ɲ(ì) / k- l-iәŋ(ì) k-ɛɲi / ɛɲi ɲɪ̀ ṭ-uɔ̀m(ì) / m- kuwö(ì) / bɔɔ(ì) ɲìì kɪ́rɪ̀k ku-ruwә̀ŋ / a-
El Amira[9] lilaŋ / ɲimaŋ wimu t-aɲ / k- liŋ kiɲ ɲi tuwam kwa ɲi palith

Numerals[edit]

Comparison of numerals in individual languages:[10]

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Katla Katla ʈíʈʌ́k cík ʌ̀t̪ʌ́t̪ ʌ̀ɡʌ́lʌ̀m ɟɔ́ɡ͡bə́lɪ́n ɟɔ́lʈɪ́n ɟɔ́lɪ́k t̪ʌ́ŋɡɪ̀l ɟʌ́lbʌ̀ʈɪ́n ràk͡pác
Katla Tima ʌt̪een / at̪ɪɪn iheek ihwʌy ihʌlʌm iduliin ɪntədakwalɔŋ ɪnt̪at̪ɪŋɛɛl ɪnt̪ɪŋɛrɛy int̪ʌhʌdʌkun ihedʌkún
Rashad Tagoi (Orig) -wàttá / ùttá wùkkók wìttá wàrʊ̀m wʊ̧ràm ɲérér ʊ̀mʊ̀rɡʊ́ tùppá kʊ́mnàsá(n) kʊ́mán
Rashad Tegali m̪t̪a rəkkʊ / rʊkkʊ d̪akt̪a / d̪at̪t̪a aːrəm ʊmmə ɲeˑɽe ʊmmərkʊ duˑpˑa fəŋɪsan fəŋən
Heiban Warnang (Werni/Wernang) ŋɔ̀ʈʈɔ́r ŋèrccáccény ŋèrráttén ŋèlàmlàŋ ŋera ŋoʈʈor ŋera ŋoʈʈor ŋemabolo ŋoʈʈor (5+1?) ŋera ŋoʈʈor ŋemabolo ŋèrccáccény (5+2?) ŋelamlaaŋɔ (4 x 2 ?) ŋera ŋoʈʈor wanoe (1- ?) kiccukurrɐ
Heiban Moro ɡónto lə́ɡə́tʃan lə́ɡɪ́tʃɪn márlon ðénə́ŋ ðénə́ŋ nəɡónto (5+ 1) ðénə́ŋ lə́ɡə́tʃan (5+ 2) ðénə́ŋ lə́ɡɪ́tʃan (5+ 3) ðénə́ŋ nəmárlon (5+ 4) rɛ́θ
Heiban Tira kɛ̀nːɛ kɪ̀ɽɪcàn kɪ̀ɽɪcɪ́n maɬɽʊ̀ ðɛ́nɛ̀ ɽɪ̀cín ɽɪ̀cɪ̀n (3+3) maɬɽʊ kɪ̀ɽɪcɪ̀n (4+3) ɔ́bːɔ̀ ðɛ́nɛ̀ n̪maɬɽʊ̀ (5+4) ʊ́rːɪ̀
Heiban Laro kʷɛ̀tɛ̀ rɔ́m tə̀ɽìl kʷɔ̀ɾɔ̀ŋɔ́ tʊ̀dìní ɲə̀rlə̀l kʷɔ̀ɾátə̀ɾìl (4+3) ɗúbə̀ tʊ̀dìní kʷɔ̀ɾɔ̀ŋɔ́ (5+ 4)
Heiban Otoro wɛ̀dɔ́ŋ kútèn t̪èɽel kɔ̀ɽɔŋ t̪ɔ̀ðːnɛ ɲɛ̄ɽɛl kɔ̀ɽɔ t̪eɽel (4+3) dúbə t̪ɔ́ðːnɛ́ kɔ̀ɽɔŋ (5+ 4) dìː
Heiban Koalib (1) kwɛ́t:ɛ kwiɽín tɛjɪɾ kɔɽŋɔn tuðní ɲiɾlíl kunəðɗuβə ɗuβaβuŋa kunəðɗi ɗí
Heiban Koalib (2) -ɛ̀t̪t̪ɛ̀ -iɽɐn tɔɔɽɔl twaɽŋan toðne ɲerlel ɗòvɔ̀kkwóɽɔ̀n ɗòvɔ̀kkwóppà kwúnɐ̀ttùrrí rúi
Talodi Dagik j-ɜlːʊ j-ɛːɽa j-ɜt̪ːɜk̚ bɽandɔ si-s-ɜlːʊ (litː one hand) na-j-ɜlːʊ (5 + 1) na j-ɛːɽa (5 + 2) na j-ɜt̪ːɜk̚ (5 + 3) na bɽandɔ (5 + 4) n̪ipɽa
Talodi Acheron bulluk weɽʌk wʌt̪t̪ʌk bɽando zəɡuŋ zulluk (lit: 'one hand') zəɡuŋ zulluk na bulluk (5 + 1) zəɡuŋ zulluk na weɽʌk (5 + 2) zəɡuŋ zulluk na wʌt̪t̪ʌk (5 + 3) zəɡuŋ zulluk na bɽando (5 + 4) ɡurruŋ
Talodi Lumun cʊ́lʊ́kʊ̂ mɛ̀ɽá mɽaβʊ́ɾʊ̀k mɔ́ʲɔ̀ɽɪ̀n mʊ́ɣʊ́lʊ̀k mɽakʊ́ɾʊ̀k mɛ́ɽɛ̀ɽàβʊ́ɾʊ̂k ( 3) ? mámɔ̀ɾmɔ̀ɾ (2 x 4) ? mʊ́ɣʊ́lláʲɔ̀ɽɪ̀n (5 + 4) mɑ̀tul

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Müller, André, Viveka Velupillai, Søren Wichmann, Cecil H. Brown, Eric W. Holman, Sebastian Sauppe, Pamela Brown, Harald Hammarström, Oleg Belyaev, Johann-Mattis List, Dik Bakker, Dmitri Egorov, Matthias Urban, Robert Mailhammer, Matthew S. Dryer, Evgenia Korovina, David Beck, Helen Geyer, Pattie Epps, Anthony Grant, and Pilar Valenzuela. 2013. ASJP World Language Trees of Lexical Similarity: Version 4 (October 2013).
  2. ^ Gerrit Dimmendaal, 2008. "Language Ecology and Linguistic Diversity on the African Continent", Language and Linguistics Compass 2/5:842.
  3. ^ Quint, Nicolas (2020). In: Vossen, Rainer and Gerrit J. Dimmendaal (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of African Languages, 239-268. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ Schadeberg, Thilo C. 1981. A Survey of Kordofanian Vol 2: The Talodi Group. (Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika: Beiheft, 2.) Hamburg: Helmut Buske. 175pp.
  5. ^ Schadeberg, Thilo C. 1981. A Survey of Kordofanian. Volume 1: The Heiban Group. Hamburg: Helmut Buske.
  6. ^ Norton, Russell, and Thomas Kuku Alaki. 2015. The Talodi Languages: A Comparative-Historical Analysis. Occasional papers in the study of Sudanese languages 11:31-161.
  7. ^ Dimmendaal, Gerrit J. 2019 (in press). Reconstructing Katloid and deconstructing Kordofanian. In: Schneider-Blum et al. (eds.): Nuba Mountain Languages Studies 3. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
  8. ^ a b c Schadeberg, Thilo. 2013. Rashad survey data. In Roger Blench & Thilo Schadeberg (eds), Nuba Mountain Language Studies. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe. pp.325-345.
  9. ^ a b Blench, Roger. 2016. Tegem-Amira: a previously unrecognised subgroup of Niger-Congo.
  10. ^ Chan, Eugene (2019). "The Niger-Congo Language Phylum". Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Kordofanian languages at Wikimedia Commons